Det berömda valvet/bågen som är den välkomnande inkörsporten till Banjul. Bågen är en symbol för huvudstaden Banjul i Gambia och de flesta boende i Gambia och gambiaresenärer känner nog igen symbolen. Att klättra upp inuti bågen för alla de trappor de har, ger en magnifik upplevelse över Banjul och museet bjuder också på lite gambisk historia.
Inkörsporten är hela 36 meter hög och ger en magisk fantastisk utsikt över staden. Att ta sig upp för alla de branta trappstegen är en egen liten upplevelse, men när man väl är där uppe så inser man snart att det var värt varenda trappsteg.
Särskilt för oss som är förtjust i att ta bilder, så inser man snart att det går att få fantastiska bilder från den höga bågen.
Inte fullt lika imponerande är själva museet, som också det finns högst upp i bågen. Det bjuder visserligen på en del gambisk historia som är intressant att se, men många av glasmontrarna är trasiga och dammiga, vilket förtar en del av känslan. Självklart är det ändå värt att ta sig en runda runt på museet, men den stora behållningen är ändå utsikten och jag hade gärna stannat kvar där en mycket längre stund än jag gjorde.
Den 36 meter höga bågen ger ett vackert synfält över en stor del av Banjul, inte minst då många av Banjuls övriga byggnation är låg och det gör att utsikten över både skolor, gator, högsta domstolen, stranden, moskén, bostäder och annat blir väl synliga.
En mindre entré tas för att besöka bågen och museet.
Imagine the reaction of desperate parents who were told at the birth of their newborn that their long yearned God’s gift would not survive for long because of the presumed deficiencies the child was born with. Surely, that could be the most disturbing message any parent could receive, especially when they had been hard luck for many years to have a child. But if that child is the only salvation for these parents, that message was surely not for them as they would do all they can to save their child from the spell cast on it the very day it breathed into this world.
This was the case of a West African nation, Kambiyaa, a country reduced to snake-size by her colonial powers and later became known as The Gambia. At Independence, the then over 300, 000 population nation, colonised by the Great Britain, received its greatest blow when it was concluded that it was not viable as a state and must be annexed to the neighbouring French colony of Senegal in order to avoid a state of collapse. This ill-starred judgment came at a time when centuries-old colonial hegemony had virtually left the country with nothing, leaving it to sadly continue the legacy of monoculture – dependence on groundnut cultivation – to sustain the economic life of the impoverished world’s newest nation (166) on the United Nations list of countries. Such were the difficult times when the country’s Independence leaders in the likes of Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara were thrown into, using their small resources to prove the doubters wrong. These leaders were firmed, and emboldened by the remarks of the renowned Pan-Africanist and Ghana’s Independence leader, Nkrumah that; “We face neither East nor West; we face Forward”, they beat the drum of sovereignty so hard that national reorientation vibrated at every nook and cranny of the country. Today, the story has been a different one with the country not only maintaining its position as an oasis in a volatile region, but developing in an impressive manner.
The success of half a century of nationhood was by no means attained on a silver platter. The Gambia that became the 37th African nation to gain freedom had paid so direly the challenge of nationhood in a turbulent world. The post-Independence was characterized by serious national and global challenges that tested the nation to its limits. Even merely putting a question mark on Gambia’s viability as a nation was all in itself a major challenge in that the country’s life was put on the line.
“It was a big challenge that even the United Nations was compelled to send a fact finding mission to The Gambia to see how true or false this notion was. The fact was that this notion of The Gambia not being a viable state went up to the stage that even businesses were affected soon after Independence. So a lot of them like Kingsway, UAC (United African Company) etc. where pulled out of the country after Independence because of this notion,” a researcher and prominent Gambian historian, Hassoum Ceesay recalled.
At Independence, the level of education of Gambians was more or less in a sorry state giving that the colonial masters had built only two senior secondary schools with others sanctioned by Christian missionaries. With this status quo, how then was the newest nation expected to head on with her Independence promise? The most significant challenge for The Gambia, therefore, became the need for a critical human resource base to move the new nation forward. This situation was exacerbated by virtually no strong financial resources base for the nation, and for Mr. Ceesay, this state of affairs forced The Gambia to rely on what he called Grant In Aid from the former colonial masters.
“The first three years of Independence The Gambia could not balance her budget; we had to depend on something called Grant In Aid from the United Kingdom. This is because we had a monoculture – agriculture only (groundnut); 90 percent of our export – 86 was dependent on groundnut. The fact that we didn’t have an institution of higher learning also meant that the human resource base was extremely weak,” he recollected.
External factors also had their negative toll on the country. For instance, the 1973 external shock on The Gambia as a result of a severe drought in the Sahel did not spare the country, wreaking havoc on its eight-year-old economy. The civil wars in the neighbouring countries that resulted in the influx of refugees equally compromised the nation’s economy. For Ceesay, The Gambia being an oasis within a troubled region has cost it to a greater extent.
“Since the late 1980s there were civil wars in the sub-region; in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cassamance of Senegal and Guinea Bissau. What these spots of instability had done was the [surge of] refugees in a small country. So we found ourselves in a situation where we had to accommodate all these at great cost. The issue of peacekeeping also was another thing because as early as the 1990 The Gambia was spending money on this. So with all these spots, the export trade of The Gambia was compromised and suffered greatly,” Ceesay said.
Eight years into self-administration, The Gambia also faced another economic problem when oil prices skyrocketed as a result of the 1973 Arab-Israel War. The crisis happened because overnight, the Arabs stopped producing oil and the price of oil went through the roof, Ceesay said.
“So poor countries like The Gambia suddenly had their oil bill quadrupled. But there also what The Gambia did was to start opening new economic relations with the Arab world. This is because after Independence, the first six years we didn’t do much work with the Arab world, but as a result of the oil crisis, The Gambia said we have to open like an alternative economic lifeline. Then a Gambian embassy was opened in Saudi Arabia as early as 1974 and another in Libya in 1976. Also relations were established with these Gulf States like Kuwait, Oman, Abu Dhabi and this had really helped to take The Gambia out of it”.
1981 Abortive Coup
The infamous 1981 Abortive Coup to befall The Gambia was orchestrated by misguided insurgents under the watch of a man by the name Kukoi Sampa Sanyang. It brought a weeklong crisis that nearly ousted President Jawara and left an untold number of suffering and deaths to peace-loving Gambians and other law-abiding foreign nationals.
“Hundreds died; we still don’t know how much but official is 500; millions of dalasis lost; The Gambia lost her image briefly and there were lootings”, Ceesay explains. He later continues;
“We were able to overcome it through our international friends. Within a few months, the country was able to have elections in 1982”.
With a poor economic baseline, fewer educated citizens and almost zero infrastructures, the question was and still is how The Gambia was able to overcome these painful shocks? One of the strategies locally designed by the First Republic was called the “Tessito”, a Mandinka parlance meaning “belt tightening”, and literary referring to self-help. The “Tessito” Programme had seen a number of projects such as schools, markets, causeways and other facilities put across communities in The Gambia.
Ceesay said the “Tessito” Programme was in a way responding to the idea that the country was not viable to move on. Hence, he said, people were urged to go and do things for themselves.
“You live in the village, yes and you want a school, yes. Well start a school and later government will send teachers. This worked for a very long time. So “Tessito” was a direct response to the notion that we cannot survive and schools, markets, causeways, access roads and the likes were built on “Tessito”,” he said.
The Gambia also responded to the 1973 drought with an environmental policy called the Banjul Declaration in 1977, which called for the full protection of the nation’s flora and fauna to avert natural calamities. This made The Gambia to become one of the first countries to have a policy on environment.
Mediation Committee on Iran-Iraq War
Small as her resources were, the nation has since the First Republic been active in the maintenance of global peace and order. For example, the nation had played an instrumental role in the Iraq-Iran War through Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, who was then the vice president of the Mediation Committee on Iran-Iraq War.
“The Gambia played a very important role from 1981 up to the end of the war around 1988. Even the Libyan sanctions, The Gambia played a very significant role in UN ending them because The Gambia was then a member of the UN Security Council,” Ceesay said.
On the sub-regional front, the nation hosted a summit of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in 1990 during which the idea for the West African standby force known as the ECOMOG was born. The leaders at the time insisted that the only way to maintaining peace and stability in the sub-region was for West African countries themselves to take up the initiative through peacekeeping. Up to date, The Gambia continues to contribute in no small measure to international peacekeeping, but has even as The Gambia celebrates Golden Jubilee, its sons and daughters are scattered around the world’s restive regions maintaining law and order.
July 1994 Coup
The 22nd July coup in 1994 ushered in the Second Republic, ending the 30-year-old rule of President Jawara and his Peoples’ Progress Party (PPP) led government. Under the watch of the then Lt. Yahya AJJ Jammeh, who since, up until today holds the Presidential title of The Gambia.
The Gambia has also played a significant role in international relations. The AU Summit it hosted in 2006 was a great diplomatic achievement for the nation as it was the first time that it grouped almost all the African leaders to discuss an array of issues bordering on the continent’s development.
Looking back at the pre-Independence era, The Gambian people had endured perhaps the worst forms of calamities to have befallen on any colonial subjects. The 1947 floods in Banjul, the 1919 Rinderpest and 1867 cholera outbreaks respectively, in the words of Ceesay, were so severe that they not only shamed colonial masters but also exposed colonialism’s lack of a developmental agenda.
“The floods happened in Banjul because there was no sewage system; no canals; and you know Bathurst is under sea level and so it flooded for almost one week. It was a sad incident but was also a wakeup call because it shamed the British to start doing some infrastructure.
You also had the cholera epidemic in 1867, which killed 70 percent of the population. This was another case of colonial negligence because whilst people were dying, the governor was still trying to get permission from London where to spend the money on saving lives.
In 1919 we had the Rinderpest Outbreak, which killed 90 percent of our cattle population. Colonialism had no development agenda; the agenda was exploitation which they succeeded in doing. In fact Gambians contributed to their causes. In the First World War, 500 Gambians fought and over 4000 Gambians fought in the Second World War. From my own research, Gambians contributed up to 30, 000 Pounds and the money was raised by ordinary Gambians – farmers, clerks and so on to support Britain’s war effort in the Second World War. This was an addition to Gambians who died in the war. In Burma alone, you have 71 Gambians buried there”.
The Gambian victory
From these challenges, it is glaring that the Gambian people, thru both the First and Second Republics have worked on Gambia’s Independence promise.
Fifty years of nationhood this Wednesday, a country once deemed unfit to govern itself has indeed persisted, weathered the storms, and against all odds, maintains its position among nations of the world.
The tiny West African nation of The Gambia now boasts of a total of 130 medical doctors that were locally trained at its only public university (the University of The Gambia), raising hope that these vital human resources would inject a new synergy to accelerating the nation’s healthcare delivery.
Officials, speaking Thursday at the swearing in ceremony of 24 newly qualified medical doctors in Banjul, described this accomplishment as a “monumental success” for a university that started operations 15 years ago.
The School of Medicines and Allied Health Sciences is the first faculty of the University of The Gambia when the nation’s citadel of learning was instituted in 1999 with the help of doctors, provided by the Cuban government. Having graduated its first ever batch of home trained medical doctors in 2006, it subsequently graduated six more in 15 years.
Thursday’s ceremonies in Banjul, attended by parents, friends, relatives, state ministers and members of the medical fraternity, marked the beginning of the career of the young doctors. As a result, they took an oath, administered by the provost of the School of Medicines and Allied Health Sciences, Dr. Ousman Niane.
The young doctors wowed, among other things; to practice the profession with utmost dignity and professionalism; keep the secret of patients; maintain the honour and tradition of the medical profession; prioritise patients’ needs; maintain the utmost respect and value for human life; and not to use the profession to violate the human rights of others, amongst others.
“The medical programme of the University of The Gambia prides itself of providing the best academic courses to its students. It has produced a total of 130 homegrown medical doctors. In 2006, we graduated 11; 12 in 2007; 17 in 2009; 21 in 2010; 14 in 2011; 20 in 2013/14 and 24 in 2015. This is phenomenal for a university that is just 15 years old. We are satisfied with the skills and competencies of our graduate medical students,” the vice chancellor of the University of The Gambia said at the occasion.
For the chief medical director of the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Dr. Al Jafari, graduation from the university is an important achievement in any student’s life. He urged the young doctors to be worthy of their profession wherever they go, reminding them that their country needs their knowledge for its development. The Health and Social Welfare minister, Omar Sey, speaking on behalf of the government, said the current regime prioritises the health sector, describing the training of 130 doctors as in line with its objective of bringing healthcare delivery closer to the doorsteps of Gambians.
Ett stadskuppsförsök genomfördes igår, tisdag i Banjul, Gambias huvudstad, men avbröts i ett tidigt skede. Alla i landet uppmanades stanna inne under dagen, men redan på eftermiddagen när jag begav mig ut, var det folk ute på gatorna.
På förmiddagen var affärer stängda och man uppmanades hålla sig inomhus. Många familjer kände osäkerhet även på eftermiddagen när affärer öppnades upp igen och valde att stanna hemma.
Vid 16-tiden i Senegambia, som är ett turistområde, var allt öppet igen och det mesta tycktes vara som vanligt även om det var en något dämpad stämning. Dock var det mycket mindre trafik ute på gatorna och när Afropé talade med gambier boende i landet, så valde många att stanna hemma resten av dagen av säkerhetsskäl.
I områdena Bijilo, Brusubi, Serekunda, Senegambia och Kerr Sering fanns under dagen inga som helst tecken på oroligheter och enligt uppgift var oroligheterna koncentrerade till Banjul, förutom att affärer, banker och andra inrättningar inte höll öppet som vanligt, det var fler checkpoints (poliskontroller av trafiken), mindre trafik och att folk uppmanades att stanna inomhus.
Huvudstaden var avstängd under hela dagen i och med att bron över till Banjul var blockad och stängd. Detta gällde även flygplatsen Yundum där inga plan fick landa eller lämna landet under hela dagen. Enligt uppgifter från människor som befann sig i Banjul, var stämningen orolig i huvudstaden under dagen.
Ungefär klockan 21:00 lyfte det första planet och under natten har fler plan lyft och landat. Vid 18-tiden släppte man spärren till Banjul vid bron och folk kunde ta sig ut och in i huvudstaden igen.
Enligt vissa uppgifter ska presidenten ha kommit till Gambia under natten och idag tycks det mesta ha återgått till det normala tillståndet, med undantag för att vissa affärer fortfarande kan vara stängda.
Gambier och andra människor som befinner sig i Gambia på semester tycks inte ha blivit påverkade av det inträffade, däremot har oron varit ganska stor för många i befolkningen som bor i Gambia och många har valt att ta det säkra före det osäkra och stanna inomhus.
Det beräknas ta några dagar innan oron lägger sig helt för situationen i landet, även om det mesta gått tillbaka till det normala.
Färjeöverfarten mellan Banjul och Barra är en riktig upplevelse på många sätt. Massor med människor som trängs med olika fordon och ett organiserat kaos är nog en rätt så träffande beskrivning. Senaste året har flera av färjorna haft problem vilket inneburit en hel del förseningar och ibland helt stoppad trafik. Detta har inneburit att många istället valt att resa över med de mindre båtarna som visserligen kostar lite mer men då istället har gått regelbundet. Oavsett vilket färdsätt man väljer är man garanterad en oförglömlig upplevelse, både på gott och ont!
Diskussioner och debatter är många kring säkerheten
vi flera av Gambias allmänna platser, precis som vid folks
privata bostadsområden och hem. Nyligen skedde brandolycka
vid en stor marknad och frågan för vecka 40 handlade om det;
”Vad heter marknaden i Banjul, som för en knapp vecka sedan drabbades av en eldsvåda?”
Rätt svar: Albert Market
Brandolyckan vid Albert Market har skapat trista konsekvenser för flera av de aktörer som finns vid marknaden, HÄR kan du läsa mer om vad som hände och reaktioner som kom i direkt anslutning till eldsvådan.
”Jag kommer från Colombia, Barranquilla, det är det folk oftast brukar vilja veta och jag har bott här i Sverige sedan jag var 4 ½ år. Min bäbis beräknas komma i oktober och kommer representera Colombia genom mig, Gambia genom sin pappa och Sverige genom oss alla tre.”